The term biogenic reef refers to every structure build from living organisms, generally it elevates itself from the bottom of the ocean to the surface, due to its great size it has great influence in the physical and ecological particularities of the environment. It presents itself with a solid consistency that allows it to resist waves and live for long periods of time. Within it organisms live with very specific adaptations.

The coral reefs are calcium carbonate deposited by animals and plants and characterize themselves for fostering great biodiversity. The way the calcium carbonate is deposited makes the structure of the reefs grow upwards and into open waters. The main builders of coral reefs are coral petreous or escleractineos also pertaining to the Anthozoa class. Their principle characteristic is to present a skeleton of calcium carbonate which is secreted by the epidermis of the basal disk and the inferior part of their spine to produce a skeletal chalice that lives in the polyp. The majority of hard corals develop in colonies, conformed by two or more polyps connected horizontally.

The coralline reefs characterize themselves for using all types of trophic and energy sources, they generally form in tropical waters of low productivity, far from upwelling zones and the input of continental waters. Their vertical distribution is due to the penetration of light which is transformed by symbiotic algae which in turn increase their capacity to load.